Prerequisites which make Jum’ah Salah Wajib
1. To be a muqem. Jum’ah salah is not wajib on a musafir.
2. To be sound and healthy. Jum’ah is not wajib on a person who is sick. That sickness which prevents a person from going to the masjid on foot will be considered. If a person is very weak due to old-age, is unable to go to the masjid or is blind, then all these people will fall under the category of the sick and Jum’ah salah will not be wajib on them.
3. To be a free person. Jum’ah salah is not wajib on a slave.
4. To be a male. Jum’ah salah is not wajib on a female.
5. To be free from those excuses which allow one from leaving out the jama’ah. Examples: (i) It is raining very heavily. (ii) One is taking care of a sick person. (iii) By going to the masjid there is a fear of the enemy. (iv) The prerequisites which we mentioned in order for salah to be wajib are also considered here. That is, to be sane, mature, and to be a Muslim.
All these prerequisites which have been mentioned make Jum’ah salah wajib. If any of these prerequisites are not found in a person and he still offers Jum’ah salah, then his salah will be valid. That is, the duty of offering zuhr salah will fall off. For example, a certain musafir or woman offers Jum’ah salah.
Prerequisites for the Jum’ah Salah to be Valid
1. The place has to be a city or town. Jum’ah salah is not valid in a village or jungle. However, Jum’ah will be valid in a village if its population is equal to that of a town. For example, if there is a population of three thousand and more, Jum’ah salah will be valid.
2. It has to be at the time of zuhr. Jum’ah salah is not valid before zuhr time or after the expiry of zuhr. So much so, that if the zuhr time expires while Jum’ah salah is being offered, then that salah will become invalid even if the last qa'dah equal to the tashahhud has been completed. It is for this reason that qada is not made for Jum’ah salah.
3. The khutbah has to be delivered. That is, to face the people and remind them of Allah even if it means merely saying Sub'hanallah or Alhamdu lillah. However, it is makruh to suffice with this alone because it is contrary to the sunnah.
4. The khutbah has to be before the salah. If the khutbah is delivered after the salah, the salah will not be valid.
5. The khutbah has to be delivered within the time of zuhr. If the khutbah is delivered before the time of zuhr, the salah will not be valid.
6. Jama’ah. That is, there has to be at least three persons apart from the imam who are present from the beginning of the khutbah till the sajdah of the first rakaat. This is irrespective of whether those who were present for the khutbah are different from those who are present for the salah. But this is on the condition that these three persons are such that they are eligible for imamate. Therefore, if there are only women or immature children, the salah will not be valid.
7. If the people leave before the sajdah and less than three persons remain or no one remains, the salah will become invalid. However, if they go after the sajdah, the salah will not be invalid.
8. To offer Jum’ah salah openly and with full permission. It will not be permissible to offer Jum’ah salah in any private and secluded place. If Jum’ah salah is offered at such a place where the general public is not allowed to come or the doors of the masjid are closed at the time of Jum’ah, the salah will not be valid.
If a person offers Jum’ah salah despite any of the above-mentioned prerequisites not being met, his salah will not be valid. He will have to offer zuhr salah.